Project Ideas

adaptation

Transmedia adaptation is appropriating the story, characters, motifs, etc from a work in one medium to “recreate” the work in another medium, for instance creating a film version of a novel, an opera from a play, a tv series from a comic book, and so forth.

Novel becomes comic becomes movie becomes musical becomes tv series

notable practitioners

Shakespeare

popular Examples

Harry Potter movies, Batman TV Series, Verdi’s opera Otello (based on Shakespeare’s Othello), Shakespeare’s Othello (based on Cinzio’s novella in Hecatommithi), Othello (1995 film starring Laurence Fishbourne), O (2001 Josh Hartnett film, loosely based on Shakespeare’s Othello), etc etc etc

student Examples

Lou’s dubbed version of Taylor Robin’s webcomic Never Satisfied.

Media

All (film, book, comic, play, opera, etc)

Purpose, audience, history

Varies, frequently part of the capitalist entertainment industry; make money.

Skills needed

Depends on the medium.

assemblage

A form of three-dimensional collage using manufactuered and found objects, often mixed with paint or other media.

Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram (1955–59)

Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram (1955–59)

notable practitioners

Joseph Cornell, Robert Rauschenberg, Kurt Schwitters, Jasper John,

popular Examples.

Cornell’s boxes, works by Rauschenberg

student Examples

None so far.

Media

Sculpture, multimedia

Purpose, audience, history

This began as and has mostly remained a “high art” genre, with connections to abstract expressionism, and the collage practised by Braque and Picasso, Dadaist and Surrealist photomontage, “junk sculpture,” the readymade, and so forth.

Skills needed

Some sculpting and construction experience (?).

collage

A form of creative work where paper and other generally flat objects are pasted to canvas, board, etc. Often the pasted material is combined with other media (painting, pen and ink, etc), but sometimes an entire work is composed of pasted paper together. Typically the paper materials are printed matter from mass media (newspapers, magazine ads, and so forth) and may include photographs, though a work that is mainly or entirely constructed from photos, even if they are mass printed, is usually referred to as a photomontage.

Digital collage is a contemporary approach that uses programs like Photoshop to assemble new compositions from found and altered images.

Top left: Raoul Hausmann, Elasticum (1920) Top right: Max Ernst, “Un semaine de bonte” (1934) Bottom left: Hannah Höch, untitled (1920) Bottom right: Jess, When a young lad dreams of manhood (1953)

Top left: Raoul Hausmann, Elasticum (1920) Top right: Max Ernst, “Un semaine de bonte” (1934) Bottom left: Hannah Höch, untitled (1920) Bottom right: Jess, When a young lad dreams of manhood (1953)

notable practitioners

Kurt Schwitters, Max Ernst, Jess Collins, Hannah Höch.

popular Examples.

Merz pieces by Schwitters, works by Ernst, Höch, Hausmann, Robert Rauschenberg, Robert Motherwell

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Visual works on paper, canvas, board, etc; digital

Purpose, audience, history

Collage originally entered high art with the experiments of Picasso and Georges Braque in the 1910s. The Dadaists picked up on the idea (their work partly owes its inspiration to advertising, which sometimes created photomontaged images for newspaper and magazine ads) and delighted in juxtaposing images of the natural with images of technology, fragments of words, and ultra-busy agglomerations of the mass media images that people were (and are) bombarded with every day to create surreal “encounters” between images from different contexts.Collage originally entered high art with the experiments of Picasso and Georges Braque in the 1910s. The Dadaists picked up on the idea (their work partly owes its inspiration to advertising, which sometimes created photomontaged images for newspaper and magazine ads) and delighted in juxtaposing images of the natural with images of technology, fragments of words, and ultra-busy agglomerations of the mass media images that people were (and are) bombarded with every day to create surreal “encounters” between images from different contexts.

Skills needed

Xacto knife and scissors, glue; Photoshop.

cover version

A new performance of a song that has previously been performed or recorded by another artist. Generally all of the instruments and vocals are original, rather than using tracks or parts from a previous recording.

notable practitioners

Elvis, Harry Belafonte, Frank Sinatra, Bob Dylan.

popular Examples.

“Me and Bobby McGee” by Janis Joplin (original by Kris Kristofferson), Adele’s cover of “Make You Feel My Love” (original by Bob Dylan), Chance The Rapper’s cover of “Believe In Yourself” (original by Ziggy Marley)

student Examples

Sergei Lambert, “Pussy is mine”

Media

Music, recording.

Purpose, audience, history

Too various to generalize about.

Skills needed

Singing, musicianship.

culture jam

A culture jam uses the media of a dominant culture (corporate, entertainment, political) to criticize and subvert the ends of that culture. The term was coined by the anti-establishment band and activist collective Negativland. Culture jamming may be thought of as a brand of détournement.

Culture jams may be audio, video, or still images, and could possibly exist in other media as well.

notable practitioners

Negativland

popular Examples.

Some people would point to the magazine Adbusters, although it is often closer to parody than subversion.
A classic is Negativland, The Greatest Around

student Examples

Numerous examples

Media

Image, audio, video, other?

Purpose, audience, history

The idea goes back to détournement, as practised by the French Situationists.

A culture jam is something more than a parody (of, say, an ad). Its intentions are to disturb you and your normal passive unconscious consumption of mainstream culture.

Dominant culture typically aims at seduction, reassurance, a pleasing message, and to keep you unconscious of its “constructedness” (that it is not just the natural way of the world). Ads, for instance, aim to make you feel good about what they are showing you, and to desire it. For instance, a beer ad, two attractive young people, the girl in a bikini, everybody looking good and happy, familiar, nothing you need to think about.

Culture jams typically try to be disturbing, upsetting, disruptive, leave you uncomfortable or even outraged. They want to make you feel different about the dominant culture.

Wikipedia:

Culture jamming is a form of disruption that plays on the emotions of viewers and bystanders. Jammers want to disrupt the unconscious thought process that takes place when most consumers view a popular advertising and bring about a détournement.

Activists that utilize this tactic are counting on their meme to pull on the emotional strings of people and evoke some type of reaction. The reactions that most cultural jammers are hoping to evoke are behavioral change and political action. There are four emotions that activists often want viewers to feel. These emotions – shock, shame, fear, and anger – are believed to be the catalysts for social change.

Skills needed

Depends on the medium you are jamming.

Cut-up

The cut-up technique is a method of literary creation in which a text is cut up into into individual words or short phrases and these are randomly rearranged to create new patterns of language.

The technique was used by the Dadaists, especially Tristan Tzara, who wrote a brief set of instructions called “To make a dadaist poem.”

See cut-up article.

The degree of absolute randomness is debateable. Sometimes literary artists practice a non-random version of this. For instance, here is my “Let’s ham it up!” – a rearrangement of the words in the opening lines of Hamlet’s famous soliloquy:

To be the question
That is nobler;
not to sleep

Or to be outrageous

Whether ’tis  in the mind
or to take arms against a sea of troubles
To suffer by opposing Fortune,
To be slings and arrows to end them.
To be of

To die or to be
Of

by Dr Jim (2017)

The literary collage is not really related to this method, but is another approach that could be pursued. Jonathan Lethem’s article “The Ecstasy of Influence” is an extended essay made up of excerpts from other people’s books and articles, slightly massaged here and there, to make “his own” discussion of creative appropriation.

notable practitioners

Bryon Gysin, William S. Burroughs

popular Examples.

Naked Lunch, other William S. Burroughs novels, novels by Julio Cortázar and Kathy Acker; songs by David Bowie and Radiohead.

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Print, writing.

Purpose, audience, history

In the 1950s, Brion Gysin, one of the more artistic and aesthetically minded of the Beat Generation writers, rediscovered this technique and used it at times in composition. His friend, the more famous author William S. Burroughs, adopted the technique and used it extensively in his novels, such as Naked Lunch (1959). The method has been used at times by other writers as well.

Burroughs taught the technique to Genesis P-Orridge, an influential figure in industrial music, avant-garde performance art, dj culture, and transgender activism, and P-Orridge used the technique with his band Throbbing Gristle and in other endeavours. P-Orridge made the comment, worth reflecting on, that “everything is recorded, and if it is recorded, then it can be edited.”

The technique has been used by more mainstream entertainers, such as David Bowie, Kurt Cobain of Nirvana, and Thom Yorke of Radiohead, as well.

Skills needed

Literary ability?

dub

Dub is a remix approach that involves removing some tracks (usually most of the vocals and possibly some other instruments) and then processing the other sounds with effects, to create a new, trippy, largely instrumental take on a more conventional pop song (originally reggae).

Much of dub involves a “subtractive remix” approach – that is instruments are removed from the mix or severely filtered to move attention to other parts of the mix, typically the bassline and drums. Among the most characteristic practices in dub are heavy echo and reverb effects, heavy filtering of instrumental tracks, temporary or total cutting out of various instruments, and cutting up and rearrangements of (usually fragmentary) parts of the vocal track. Sometimes someone will “toast” (the Jamaican precursor to rap) over the instrumentals at various parts as well.

notable practitioners

King Tubby, Lee “Scratch” Perry

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Music

Purpose, audience, history

Dub usually focuses in on the music, beat, and instrumentation and minimizes the “message” that was present in the lyrics. It encourages you to a meditative state, creates mindfulness, and focuses your attention to unexpected parts of the original mix, creating insight. Otherwise, put, it is “high” art.

Skills needed

Music editing.

fan art

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

fanedit

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

fan fiction

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

fanvid

Also known simply as a vid or vidding.

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

machinima

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

mashup (audio)

An audio mashup takes parts of two or more recorded songs by different artists – maybe people who would never willingly be part of one another’s music – and creates a new song based entirely on these source songs.

notable practitioners

DJ Earworm, Girl Talk, Norwegian Recycling, Danger Mouse, dj BC

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Music

Purpose, audience, history

Fun, ego, love, criticism, self-promotion.

Skills needed

Music editing

medley

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Charles Appiah, “Acapella medley”;

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

parody

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

partial cover

Kind of a cross between a cover and sampling in which one composes a song that in part features a cover of someone else’s song, but also features original material.

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

photomontage

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

poop

Generally known as a YouTube Poop. A form of video mashup ….

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

pop art

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Richard Hamilton

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

redub

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Video

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

remix

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

sampling

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

supercut

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

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Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon

trailer mashup

Coming soon

notable practitioners

Coming soon

popular Examples.

Coming soon

student Examples

Coming soon

Media

Coming soon

Purpose, audience, history

Coming soon

Skills needed

Coming soon